İlköğretimde öğretmen, müdür ve müfettişlerin kadın yöneticilere yönelik tutumları
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Bu çalışmada ilköğretimde görev yapan öğretmen, müdür ve müfettişlerin kadın yöneticilere yönelik tutumları incelenmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak Kadın Yöneticilere Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği (Berkman, 2005) kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca, öğretmen, müdür ve müfettişlerin demografik özelliklerini bulmak için bir anket uygulanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini 2007 yılında Tokat ve Samsun illerinde görev yapan toplam 737 öğretmen, müdür, müdür yardımcısı ve . müfettiş oluşturmuştur. İlköğretimde görev yapan öğretmen, yönetici ve müfettişlerin kadın yöneticilere yönelik tutumları betimsel istatistikler kullanılarak incelenmiş ve kadın yöneticilere yönelik tutumlarının cinsiyet, eğitim düzeyi, yaş, çalışılan kurum ve statü değişkenlerine göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı t-testi ve tek yönlü ANOVA ile kontrol edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları kadın yöneticilere yönelik tutumların cinsiyet değişkenine göre farklılaştığını; statü, çalışılan kurum, eğitim düzeyi ve yaş değişkenlerine göre ise farklılaşmadığını göstermiştir.Background. The percentage of woman teachers working in primary and secondary education is 45% while the percentage of woman administrators working within the whole National Education system is not even 10% (MEB, 2005). There have been numerous studies pointing out to gender discrimination and other factors inside the school system that prevent women from being administrators (Ayan, 2000; Brenner & Tomkiewicz, 1982; Çelikten, 2005; Dubno, 1985; Fierman, 1990; Köroğlu, 2006; Özkaya, 1988; Peters, Terborg & Taylor, 1974; Sefer, 1999; Terborg, Peters, Ilgen & Smith, 1977; Tomkiewicz & Adeyemi-Bello, 1995). Two main factors causing low number of woman administrators at schools are gender bias and social resistance (Çelikten, 2004; Heilman, 1995; Schein, 1973; Terborg, 1977; Timpano & Knight, 1976). Attitudes towards woman administrators have also been noted as another significant factor over the low number of woman administrators (Andruskiw & Howes, 1985; Berkman, 2005; Bey doğan, 2001; Cortis & Cassar, 2005; Garland & Price, 1977; Looa & Thorpe, 2005; Özkan, 2006; Sakallı-Uğurlu & Beydoğan, 2002). Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes of teachers, principals, and supervisors towards woman administrators working in primary education in relation to status, gender, affiliation and educational background. Method. The sample of the study contains 737 teachers, principals, deputy principals, and supervisors working at primary schools located in the city center of Tokat and Samsun in 2007. Scale for Attitudes towards Woman Administrators (Berkman, 2005) was used as the data instrument. Demographic data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by researchers. Scale for Attitudes towards Woman Administrators (Berkman, 2005) is a seven point rating scale with 29 items. Reliability analysis produced a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of .92. An exploratory factor analysis produced a three factor structure. The first factor, professional behavior with 15 items explained 23% second factor named as interpersonal relations with 10 items explained 20% and the third factor, professional ethics with four items explained 8.5% of the total variance. Data were analyzed by using t-test and one-way ANOVA. SPSS 15.00 was used for data analysis. Results. Higher the score on Attitudes towards Woman Administrators scale, attitudes towards woman administrators are more positive. Results indicated that on a seven point scale; mean attitude scores were x=3.57 for professional behaviors; x=4.80 for interpersonal behaviors and x=5.00 for professional ethics dimensions of Attitudes towards Woman Administrators scale. Although principals reported (xPrincipal=126.2) slightly higher attitudes toward woman principals as compared to teachers (xTeacher=122.3) and supervisors (xSupervisor=121.2), ANOVA results did not show any statistically significant differences between three groups (F(2;654)=1.88, p>.05). There were also no statistically significant differences in attitudes towards woman administrators by private sector - public sector (t(654)=0.90, p>.05), educational background (F(3. 635)=.707, p>.05) and age groups ( F(3; 631)=1.018, p>.05). However, as expected, there was a statistically significant difference in attitudes towards woman administrators by gender (t(653) =5.51, p<.05). Female teachers, principals and supervisors reported significantly more positive attitudes towards woman administrators (xfemale=126.1) than teachers, principals and supervisors (xmale= 118.7). Conclusions and implications. Examination of attitudes towards woman administrators revealed that teachers, principals, and supervisors reported higher scores for the sub-scale of professional ethics than the other two sub-scales. Therefore, it is correct to state that primary school teachers, principals, and supervisors have more positive attitudes towards professional ethics behaviors of woman administrators while relatively low or negative attitudes towards professional job related behaviors. It is also not surprising that male participants are less likely to think positively about woman administrators' professional behaviors, interpersonal behaviors and professional ethics behaviors. This finding is consistent with results of studies reported by Özkan (2006), Mostafa (2005), and Cortis & Cassar (2005), but inconsistent with those of Çelikten (2005). According to Çelikten, woman teachers find it difficult to work with woman administrators, and man teachers accept woman administrators more easily. In addition, this study also found out that age was not a factor influencing attitudes towards woman administrators. Yet, this finding is not in accordance with those of Mostafa (2005). Mostafa emphasized that the young people had more liberal attitudes towards woman administrators than the older ones. The researchers believe that difference between participating groups may have led to such an inconsistency. Mostafa analyzed attitudes of university students and adults at different managerial positions. This study demonstrated that principals, teachers and supervisors show relatively lower positive attitudes towards woman administrators. There is no doubt that these negative attitudes are detrimental to increasing participation of woman in administrative jobs in education. Therefore developing an awareness of gender issues and positive attitudes towards woman administrators by disseminating successful administrative works of woman administrators as well as taking measures to encourage equal participation of woman in administrative jobs may help to increase the number of woman administrators in primary education.